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STEM Chemistry Questions / Answers

Over 1,000 questions about chemistry cover every area that a student will encounter.

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HemiChem:  The Basics

 

The subatomic world of chemistry gets based upon a hemispherical model (HemiChem).

  • Electron subshells are longitudinal rings, in two hemispheres of Odd-Count sets a) at the same distance and b) at the same inclination angle.  That makes those 2 x Odd-Count electrons all have the same potential energy and chemical behaviors.

 

This impacts every calculation for the Periodic Table (with sets as 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32) based upon 2 x squares (2 hemispheres by the ring - π*r-squared).

  • Shell-1 = 2 x 1-squared = 2 x 1 = 2 electrons then full.

  • Shell-2 and -3 = 2 x 2-squared = 2 x 4 electron = 8 electrons.

  • Shell-4 and -5 = 2 x 3-squared = 2 x 9 electron = 18 electrons.

  • Shell-6 and -7 = 2 x 4-squared = 2 x 16 electrons = 32 electrons.

 

This allows all the advance physics understanding the quantum numbers, not as abstract, but isntead jsut as the hemispherical coordinates for those electrons in 3D with the overlay of the axis as one radial direction.

  • 1st - Radial (r#).  The count of layers/shells starting with 1.

  • 2nd - Inclination (θ#) (I prefer this wording as subshell-s θ#=0 starts from the poles, -s=2 at poles) / Longitude (that wording means counted from the equator which confuses students).  These start from count=0 for 'at the poles.'

  • 3rd - Latitude (preferred) / Azimuthal (from meridian, hard to teach) (φ#).  These start from -0- as an arbitrary meridian, and build -2, -1, and +1, +2 around the 360/(2*MAX(θ#)-1) angle in degrees.

  • 4th - Hemispheres (z=X0=-1/2 or +1/2).  Which hemisphere for the longitudinal set.

Hopefully, you can see these longitudinal sets as odd-count sets with my notes as 2-hemisphere cylinders (longitudinal ring-springs) overlaid on a current textbook graphic.

 

Electron configurations get better understood by replacing Lewis Dot-Diagrams with my Arno Dot-Diagrams.

  • In stable molecules, only complete, full longitudinal-subshell-sets in each hemisphere are allowed.  No partials. 

 

  • This explains 3D engineering for the Elements in Columns that cause a) spectrum, b) electrical conductivity; and c) magnetism below.   So, Copper becomes not a partial subshell-d, but full endcapss which allows 'no shading' so lots of spectrum lines. 

The goal is to go beyond formulas.  Eventually, every chemistry challenge becomes 3D engineering that every level of student can understand.

Everything follows from the basics of the Atomic Model as hemispherical with electrons settling into subshells as longitudinal ring-spring sets.

The Atomic Model:  Questions and Answers

Answer 1

Answer 2

Periodic Table:  Questions and Answers

Answer 1

Answer 2

Electron Configurations:  Questions and Answers

Answer 1

Answer 2

Bonding:  Questions and Answers

Hydrogen bonds:

Covalent bonds:

Ionic bonds:

Element Properites:  Questions and Answers

Electrical conductivity / resistance:

Magnetism:

Spectrum:

States of Matter:  Questions and Answers

Solid:

Liquid:

Gas:

Plasma:

Bose-Einstein Condensate:

Chemical Reactions:  Questions and Answers

Balancing Chemical Reaction Counts:

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